Category

Selfie

Top definition. Selfies are a style of photography wherein 1 the photographer's own face is included in the photograph, 2 and the camera is held by the photographer when the photo is taken. Other optional elements are often associated with selfies. Use of a mirror is common, especially mirrors found in dirty, unphotogenic bathrooms. Bathrooms are a popular location for selfies since so many believe that the worse everything around them looks in the photo, the better they will appear by comparison. Immediate upload of the photo to social media is also optional, but generally not recommended. By reviewing the photo on a large computer monitor one has a better chance to find and remove unintended, possibly embarrassing elements from the photo before others see it. Upload of the photo after reviewing it on a large screen is also not recommended, since most selfies suck anyway and are rarely actually worth sharing. Having selfies be poor quality for other reasons such as being out of focus or having motion blur due to using too slow a shutter speed in low light is also a popular technique. Having the photo further ruined by application of bizarre and ugly filters and special effects, in order to try to conceal how poor quality the photo was in the first place, is also popular.
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Selfies are often shared on social media , via social networking services such as Facebook , Twitter , Snapchat , and Instagram. They are often casual in nature or made to appear casual.
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Understanding Selfies View all 15 Articles.
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To save this word, you'll need to log in. The first-known appearance of selfie in written form occurred in on an Australian news website, but the word didn't see much use until By November , selfie was appearing frequently enough in print and electronic media that Oxford Dictionaries publisher of the Oxford English Dictionary as well as other dictionaries chose the word as its Word of the Year. This announcement itself led to a significant increase in the use of the word by news organizations, an increase that was further boosted following the December memorial service for Nelson Mandela, at which American President Barack Obama was caught taking a selfie with Danish Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt and British Prime Minister David Cameron. The word selfie, with its suggestions of self-centeredness and self-involvement, was particularly popular with critics who saw this moment as a reflection of the President's character. Examples of selfie in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web The last time Gomez appeared on Grande's Instagram page was in a selfie included toward the end of a caption-less album Wednesday. Send us feedback. Dictionary Entries near selfie self-identification self-identity self-idolatry selfie self-ignite self-image self-immolation. Accessed 16 Aug. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for selfie selfie.

Understanding Selfies View all 15 Articles. Selfies appear as a double-edged phenomenon. Taking, posting, and viewing selfies has become a daily habit for many. At the same time, research revealed that selfies often evoke criticism and disrespect, and are associated with non-authenticity and narcissism.

Moreover, others were assumed to have more fun and positive feelings while taking selfies whereas own selfies were judged as more authentic and self-ironic. Altogether, participants expressed a distanced attitude toward selfies, with stronger agreement for potential negative consequences threats to self-esteem, illusionary world than for positive consequences e.

The revealed selfie-bias, i. On the other hand, the selfie bias may fulfill a psychological function. In conclusion, we suggest that the playful and somewhat ambiguous support of self-presentation may be a key factor for the success of selfies. Relations to biases and mechanisms from social psychology, limitations of the present study and implications for future research are discussed.

Though exact data about the worldwide pervasiveness of selfies are not available, the estimations in existing selfie statistics are impressive. For example, the Google statistics in Brandt, reported about 93 billion selfies taken per day — counting only Android phone users.

According to a poll with 3, people, among those aged 18—24, every third picture taken is a selfie Hall, Selfie accessories, such as selfie-sticks, have been bestsellers, and phone producers have adjusted their products for the sake of selfies. In short, taking, posting, and viewing selfies has become a daily habit for many and their mere pervasiveness makes it relevant to know more about the psychology of taking selfies and their consequences on an individual and societal level.

The present research aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of selfies through the exploration of related motives and psychological variables, and in particular, the ambivalent character and judgments of selfies.

In fact, the current discussion about the value and consequences of selfies is quite diverse. While some highlight the value of selfies as a new material for creative work and the enhanced possibilities to convey emotions, others are primarily concerned about the excessive self-presentation promoted by selfies, and point at related conflicts, threats to self-esteem or decreased mindfulness.

Rettberg , for example, analyses selfies from a cultural perspective. She describes how the selfie culture gives rise to experimentation and mutual inspiration, inventing new genres such as serial selfies, or time-lapse selfies. For instance, the award-winning time-lapse video Me by Ahree Lee shows selfies taken every day for 3 years.

In contrast, Roman focuses on the often negative side-effects of selfies for social interaction. While being totally immersed in the mission of taking the perfect selfie, this may diminish the experience of the moment itself or even cause social conflict.

Aiming for the perfect shot of oneself in front of a perfect scenery, people do not seem to care whether they are obstructing the views or disrespecting the needs of others. Another disconcerting phenomenon she sees related to the boom of selfies is the vanishing of natural, candid pictures, and that even young children under 3 years of age are familiar with posing and developing a photo smile.

Among adolescents, the enormous focus on taking and sharing pictures of oneself is associated with even more severe effects. For example, sharing selfies among adolescent girls is correlated to overvaluation of shape and weight, body dissatisfaction, as well as thin ideal internalization McLean et al. Further reports referred to the relations between selfies and narcissism Barry et al.

Another typical element of selfies related to inauthenticity judgments was the visibility of the photographic production process, e. Whatever one was doing, one interrupted this activity to take a selfie. In fact, some self-photographs even play with this aspect and deliberately display inauthenticity, e. On the other hand, this lacking authenticity may be one reason why people state that they prefer seeing other pictures of their friends than selfies Christoforakos and Diefenbach, Taken together, selfies appear as a somewhat mysterious phenomenon.

Aside from art and design projects, the discussed consequences of selfies, seem rather negative — breaking social norms, focusing on photographing oneself rather than what is happening around us, causing conflict in relationships, fostering body dissatisfaction, inauthenticity and narcissistic behavior.

Still selfies are extremely popular. They seem to be more for people than just a new trendy way of taking photos. The present paper illuminates this paradox situation through a psychological perspective and deeper insight into the motivations behind selfies. Our research explores how people may benefit from selfies, how they reflect on selfies and see their own position within the selfie culture, and why selfies could be more prevalent than individual statements suggest.

In the following, we first discuss the theoretical background and considerations behind our work, namely, the possible advantages and value that selfies may provide to people, with a focus on self-presentation and impression management.

We also discuss first findings on self-reflection on selfies and differences between self and other judgments. We then present an empirical study that explores these phenomena in more detail, followed by a general discussion and implications for future research.

At first, and apart from a social dimension, self-portraiture and selfies may be seen as a means for self and identity exploration. In general, the outward orientation and public presentation seems an essential part of selfies, considering that most people do not take selfies just for themselves.

More often, the envisioned audience seems already present while taking the selfie, and people deliberately use self-photographs to form a particular impression. Lyu , for example, explored impression management in the context of travel selfies shared via social networks, revealing how tourists strategically adjust photographic images to manage their impressions and highlighting the role of posting selfies as strategic self-presentation behavior.

In line with this, existing definitions of selfies in research Sorokowski et al. In order to better understand the value of selfies as a form of online self-presentation, previous research on social media offers a helpful starting points, especially since sharing photos has become a key feature in social networks Weiser, Another strand of research explored relations to self-esteem and well-being.

Thus, the same effect that boost our self-esteem when pimping our own profile and presenting a highly selective, favorable insight in our life, may fire back when visiting the profiles of others. In general, online-self presentation via social media profiles, blog posts, etc. One can get a quick picture of oneself, anywhere, at any place, without help from others.

With the selfie-cam, acting as a mirror, the over controlled self-presentation in social media already starts while taking a photo. Investigations in relation to individual differences in strategic self-presentation behavior lent further support to self-presentation as a central motive for social media use. Thinking about the specific value of selfies, relations between the individual engagement in taking and posting selfies and individual self-presentation strategies are conceivable as well, as discussed in the following paragraphs.

Among the many opportunities of social media, selfies appear as an element with an especially high potential for self-presentation and impression management: Per se , selfies put the focus on the self. The selfie cam provides control while taking the picture; photo editing does the rest. Altogether, selfies thus seem to provide best opportunities for strategic self-presentations and impression management. However, selfies may be especially supportive of particular types of self-presentation. Given that people vary in their habitual use of different strategies of self-presentation, the enthusiasm for selfies may also vary with how well selfies as a means for self-presentation fit with individually preferred self-presentation strategies.

For example, in the taxonomy of self-presentation strategies suggested by Merzbacher , two strategies in particular seem well in line with what selfies can provide: The first strategy is self-promotion, i. By showing a highly controlled picture of oneself in the way that one wants to be seen by others, selfies provide a ground for self-promotion. The second strategy is self-disclosure, i. Other strategies of self-presentation in the taxonomy by Merzbacher, seem less compatible with selfies, as for example understatement.

Selfies, however, seem not well compatible with this strategy. Posting any photo of oneself is already some sign of taking oneself seriously. Posting a selfie, i.

Moreover, selfies have no implemented feedback channel as required for effectively using understatement as a strategy with positive effect for the self. An important element of understatement as a self-presentation strategy is the interaction partner who will disclaim the modest self-presentation.

Hence, people who habitually use understatement should be less enthusiastic about selfies as a tool for self-presentation. In sum, opportunities for self-presentation may be assumed as a core attractor for the popularity of selfies. However, selfies may not foster all types of different self-presentation strategies in equal degree, so that the enthusiasm for selfies may vary with individual tendencies in habitual self-presentation.

From an analytical point of view, self-presentation may be one of the most prominent psychological reasons for taking selfies. However, another interesting question is how people reflect on this issue themselves: Do they see selfies primarily as a tool for self-presentation? Where do they see advantages and disadvantages of selfies in their daily life?

So far, only little research has explored personal reflections and subjective motivations for taking and posting selfies. An exception is the study by Sung et al. The interview study revealed four primary motives, namely attention seeking, communication, entertainment, and archiving, which each were assessed by a 3—6 items in the online-survey. While the motives attention seeking, communication, and entertainment were positively related to narcissism and selfie-posting frequency, archiving was not.

Both aspects were surveyed by an open question format and categorized by qualitative content analysis. Hence, our findings on positive associations generally show parallels with the study on selfie motivations by Sung et al.

However, the aspect of control and self-staging was brought up more explicitly in our study, and also the aspect of independence as a positive consequence of selfies was not discussed by Sung et al. Not all statements were clearly indicative of self versus other judgments, since the study did not explicitly ask for this differentiation. However, those statements that did, showed a focus on situational and practical reasons for taking selfies oneself e. In general, the exploration of interpretations and attributed reasons for taking selfies can offer deeper insight into the psychology and subjective experience of selfies.

First, an exploration of psychological functions of selfies with a special focus on selfies as a means of self-presentation as well as the representation of common self-presentation strategies.

We focused on the strategies of self-promotion, self-disclosure and understatement, assuming positive relations with selfie-related affect for the two former and negative relations for the latter.

Second, an exploration of the image and perceived consequences of selfies, and relations to personal and societal values. Thus, besides indirect conclusions about the value of selfies e. Third, based on the incidences for differences between self- versus other judgments in our previous research Christoforakos and Diefenbach, , we aimed for a systematic exploration of this effect. In line with a self-serving interpretation, we assumed more likable judgments e.

Two hundred thirty-eight individuals female living in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland took part in the study and completed the whole survey.

The study was carried out via online survey with unipark 3 , and participation took about 15 min. All materials were presented in German language. An invitation link to the study was distributed via diverse mailings lists and university panels.

Participants indicated how often they were usually taking selfies and receiving selfies from friends. In addition, participants rated how much they liked seeing selfies compared to usual non-selfie pictures. Its short form Mackinnon et al. The 10 items were presented in random order. Despite the low scale reliability for NA, we left the scale in original form to facilitate comparison with previous studies.



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