A battered young maid with black swollen eyes, and habitually beaten up, is quite common in Bangladesh. The torture of domestic help - specifically minor girls- is too frequent an occurrence in this country for any such incident to warrant surprise. According to baseline survey by the ILO, there were about , child domestic workers in Bangladesh whose 'employment' usually borders on indentured servitude.
Given that the survey was conducted over a decade ago, today's numbers may well be much higher. The vast majority of domestic workers are minor girls, who are directly sent from their villages to urban areas—completely alien to them—by poverty-stricken parents who perhaps leap at the opportunity of turning an economic burden to a source of income. Their vulnerability only emboldens employers who engage in sadistic acts.
In the period between to , there were 2, reported incidents involving violence against domestic workers, of which led to the death of the domestic workers. The severity of torture ranges from inhuman working hours with no rest to constant beatings - such as hitting the head against the wall, scorching raw sking with lit cigarettes and hot metal objects, while some are even raped, as a result of which many commit suicide.
Some abuses are also of mental nature - from non-payment of wages to incessant verbal abuse and infliction of trauma. The torture of domestic help is an extreme manifestation of this society's wider class problem, which is rooted in the landowning class's false yet deeply entrenched sense of superiority over the working class people. Domestic workers are dehumanized on the basis of their socioeconomic standing.
Everyday classist macroaggressions that are rooted in the same strand of dehumanization pave the way for such extreme barbarities. Thanks in advance for checking my Photostream. Now, Ata mia is the only friend I managed to make from flickr! How pathetic is that? Now, am I about to reveal everything? Everyone starts with the name. So shall I. My name is Ashif MD. There is a huge issue about my name. But after watching Pokemon, I was desperate to change my name to Ashif- so that in short I can be Ash!
After 9 years, I got this name! From what I can remember, I was addicted to comics and books from an early age. Yes, I am guilty of stealing some comics, but only from those who had also stolen from me! Do they remember it? Or are they forgiven for being older than me? I dunno.
Not something one wants to be. Maybe I will quit photography soon. In my English class, I was always few steps ahead of one of my fav teacher, Niharanjan Sir. Even though I had never heard of or read those before. Apparently, they never gave me the credit I still have the manuscript.
I am into music and painting. I have my ipod classic always with me loaded with 68 GBs of music. Linkin Park is my all time fav. And I listen to everything with a catchy tune too. I almost forgot to mention it, but I started photography cause I wanted to impress girls. Never succeeded. I had beaten up two persons, thrice during my school years, because they had called my parents some names.
Those two boys, are the best two faced person, who can charm any person with their talks and thus no one believed me that they called my parents names and there were rallies against me commanded by my classmates.
I am very sensitive about family. Surprising thing is that those two once were my best friends. I never am good at choosing friends or identifying person to mix with. I am very short tempered. But now I have somewhat learnt to control myself from doing wild things when I am at rage.
I have several personalities. Not that I acquired them willingly. One is a moody dark character, who makes decisions from emotions.
One that is always funny and cracks jokes and one that likes to be silent and watching type. I like to eat sweet things. I always liked to be in the thick of things. Now with age, comes refraining from doing things I loved to do once. I was inspired to do photography by three persons. First it was NiH, I aint lying dude. Then it was Fahim hossain and Mahran vai. We also saw the use of more and more of the transistor technology in use in things like hand held calculators which although are still very expensive over time will drop in price and increase in function to where we are today.
It is also the first year North Sea Oil production begins in Norway. The birth of Greenpeace signals a need to question how we manage the resources entrusted to us and a means of organised questioning of governments around the world.
One of the two great influences on the thinking of Charles Manson, along with the Book of Revelation, was the musical group the Beatles. According to Family members, Manson would most often quote "the Beatles and the Bible. Revelation 9 also tells of "locusts"--the Beatles, of course--coming out upon the earth.
It describes prophets as having "faces as the faces of men" but with "the hair of women"--an assumed reference too the long hair of the all-male English group. In Revelation 9, the four angels with "breastplates of fire"--electric guitars--"issued fire and brimstone"--song lyrics. Manson believed that the Beatles spoke to him through their lyrics, especially those included in the White Album, released in December Several songs from the White Album crystalized Manson's thinking about a coming revolt by blacks against the white Establishment.
He interpreted many of the songs idiosyncratically, believing, for example, that "Rocky Raccoon" meant black people and "Happiness is a Warm Gun" was a song about getting firearms to carry on the revolution rather than--more obviously--a song about sex. The White Album played a key role in forging Manson's warped ideology. The symbols 's' for shilling and 'd' for pence derive from the Latin solidus and denarius used in the Middle Ages.
A "crown" was originally five shillings, originally being a gold coin issued during the reign of Henry VIII in It became a silver coin in under his son Edward VI. It remained as a five shilling piece or coin until decimalisation is It even survived decimalisation to become a twenty five pence coin, struck for commemorative purposes in , , , and With the issue of for the Queen Mother's 90th birthday, it had been very quietly decided to make a five pound coin of the same size and format as the old crown, and that it would continue to be known as a crown.
This was sensible enough, because many world coins are known as "crown sized coins" or simply "crowns", although to the American mind they will probably be termed "dollar sized coins". Crowns would be referred to as "five bob". Actually, the change in face value confuses many British folk, who now frequently believe the old five shilling or twenty five pence coins to be worth five pounds. A halfcrown or sometimes "half-a-crown" is, as its name implies, valued at half the face value of an old five shilling piece, so was worth two shillings and sixpence.
A halfcrown might also be referred to as "two and a kick", although I do not know the precise origin, i suspect it may be from Cockney rhyming slang meaning "two and six", i. I should further explain that the "shillings" part was often omitted in everyday speech, so that "two shillings and three pence" would be abbreviated to "two and three" or "two and threepence". After the Norman Conquest in , the pound was divided into twenty shillings or pennies.
It remained so until decimalization on 15 February The first decimal coins in Britain dropped into purses and wallets across the nation on 15 February It was the beginning of the end for the faithful tanners, bobs and half-crowns of the old system, which was phased out over the next 18 months. The massive change had taken the Decimal Currency Board five years to plan. Although we all have money worries, especially at a time of such economic -austerity, few of us ever spare a thought for the coins that jangle in our pockets.
We take them for granted; usually we -barely even bother to look at them. Out went the shilling, the half-crown and the sixpence, with all their historic associations. In came a new, unfamiliar European-style -currency — much to the outrage of millions of ordinary Britons. Like so many of the social and cultural changes of the Sixties and Seventies, it was remarkably undemocratic.
Nobody ever voted for it; nobody ever asked the British people for their opinion. Decimalisation was imposed from on high, the edict handed down by a political and intellectual elite indifferent to the romantic charms of history and tradition, but determined to turn Britain into a modern European state. Even the Victorians had their fair share of decimal enthusiasts, although their -campaign never caught on. Now decimal currencies are the norm, we often forget they represent something -relatively new.
As late as , only one major European country, Russia, had a -decimalised currency, the rouble, which was divided into kopeks. But when the French-Revolution broke out that year, radicals saw their chance to sweep away the legacy of the past.
Six years later, the French introduced the franc, divided into centimes, which was to become their national-currency for the next two centuries. And although Britain stood firm against the Corsican-dictator, there were, as so often, more than a few starry-eyed idealists who wanted to copy the French example.
But the decimal enthusiasts never gave up the fight. The pound sterling, the half-crown, the shilling and the sixpence were too deeply embedded in our national life; they were symbols of a country set apart, proud of its island status.